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Sedimentation survey of Highland Silver Lake, Madison County, Illinois
- Sedimentation detracts from the use of any water supply lake by reducing lake depth and volume, with a reduction of reserve water supply capacity and possible burying of intake structures. Sedimentation of a reservoir is a natural process that can be accelerated or slowed by human activities in the watershed. Silver Lake is Located in Madison County, one mile northwest of Highland, Illinois. The location of the dame is 38 degrees 46' 00" north latitude and 89 degrees 42' 05" west longitude in Section 30, T.4N., R.5W., Madison County, Illinois. The dam impounds the East Fork of Silver Creek, a tributary of Silver Creek in the Kaskaskia River basin. The watershed is a portion of Hydrologic Unit 07140204 as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey. Construction of the lake was completed in 1962. The Silver Lake watershed consists of the 47.1-square-mile area drained by the East Fork of Silver Creek above the dam site. Land use in the watershed of the lake is mainly agricultural. Average annual precipitation in the area is 38.98 inches as measured at Greenville (1961-1990), and the average runoff (1912-1998) is approximately 10.0 inches (Shoal Creek near Breese). Average annual lake evaporation rates are 35.2 inches per year at St. Louis, Missouri. The Illinois State Water Survey conducted sedimentation surveys of Silver Lake in 1981 and 1984. In 1981, cross sections were laid out at 14 lines across the lake and surveyed. Sedimentation surveys of Silver Lake in 1984 and 1999 repeated as closely as possible the series of survey lines established during the 1981 survey. Sedimentation has reduced the capacity of Silver Lake from 7,322 acre-feet or ac-ft (2,386 million gallons) in 1962 to 5,832 ac-ft (1,900 million gallons) in 1999. Sediment accumulation rates in the lake have averaged 40.3 ac-ft per year from 1962-1999. Annual sedimentation rates for three separate periods, 1962-1981, 1981-1984, and 1984-1999, were 51.2, 63.0, and 21.9 ac-ft, respectively. Density analyses of the sediment samples indicate that sediment in the northern (upstream) portions of the lake has greater unit weight than sediment in the southern end of the lake. In general, coarser sediments are expected to be deposited in the upstream portion of a lake where the entrainment velocity of the stream is reduced to the much slower velocities of a lake environment. These coarser sediments tend to be denser when settled and are subject to shallow drying and higher compaction rates as a result of more frequent drawdown exposure in the shallow water environment. As the remaining sediment load of the stream is transported through the lake, increasingly finer particle sizes and decreasing unit weight are observed. The sedimentation rate for Highland Silver Lake is similar to the rates for other Illinois lakes of similar size and character. The sedimentation for Silver Lake is in the low to average ranged compared to other Illinois lakes.
Originally Deposited as: 999999994316
Phone Number: Language(s): EN-English Volume or Year: 2001
Number or Issue: Date Created: 9 24 2004
Date Last Modified: 7 12 2004 Librarian Remarks:
Access This Publication1. Sedimentation survey of Highland Silver Lake, Madison County, Illinois (20060930185112_ISWSCR2001-05.pdf).
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